Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons;[6] advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

Chapter includes 

·         01 ELECTRIC CHARGES AND FIELDS

·         02 ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL AND CAPACITANCE

·         03 CURRENT ELECTRICITY

·         04 MOVING CHARGES AND MAGNETISM

·         05 MAGNETISM AND MATTER

·         06 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

·         07 ALTERNATING CURRENT

·         08 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

·         09 RAY OPTICS AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS

·         10 WAVE OPTICS

·         11 DUAL NATURE OF RADIATION AND MATTER

·         12 ATOMS

·         13 NUCLEI

·         14 SEMICONDUCTOR ELECTRONICS: MATERIALS, DEVICES AND SIMPLE CIRCUITS

·         15 COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

 


Applied mathematics has significant overlap with the discipline of statistics, whose theory is formulated mathematically, especially with probability theory. Statisticians (working as part of a research project) "create data that makes sense" with random sampling and with randomized experiments;[62] the design of a statistical sample or experiment specifies the analysis of the data (before the data be available). When reconsidering data from experiments and samples or when analyzing data from observational studies, statisticians "make sense of the data" using the art of modelling and the theory of inference – with model selection and estimation; the estimated models and consequential predictions should be tested on new data.

Chapter Include

·         01 RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS

·         02 INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

·         03 MATRICES

·         04 DETERMINANTS

·         05 CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

·         06 APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES

·         07 INTEGRALS

·         08 APPLICATION OF INTEGRALS

·         09 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

·         10 VECTOR ALGEBRA

·         11 THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY

·         12 LINEAR PROGRAMMING

·         13 PROBABILITY

 


The current model of atomic structure is the quantum mechanical model. Traditional chemistry starts with the study of elementary particles, atoms, molecules,substances, metals, crystals and other aggregates of matter. This matter can be studied in solid, liquid, or gas states, in isolation or in combination. The interactions, reactions and transformations that are studied in chemistry are usually the result of interactions between atoms, leading to rearrangements of the chemical bonds which hold atoms together. Such behaviors are studied in a chemistry laboratory. The chemistry laboratory stereotypically uses various forms of laboratory glassware. However glassware is not central to chemistry, and a great deal of experimental (as well as applied/industrial) chemistry is done without it.Solutions of substances in reagent bottles, including ammonium hydroxide and nitric acid, illuminated in different colors A chemical reaction is a transformation of some substances into one or more different substances.[13] The basis of such a chemical transformation is the rearrangement of electrons in the chemical bonds between atoms. It can be symbolically depicted through a chemical equation, which usually involves atoms as subjects. The number of atoms on the left and the right in the equation for a chemical transformation is equal. (When the number of atoms on either side is unequal, the transformation is referred to as a nuclear reaction or radioactive decay.) The type of chemical reactions a substance may undergo and the energy changes that may accompany it are constrained by certain basic rules, known as chemical laws.

Chapter includes ........

·         01 The Solid State

·         02 Solutions

·         03 Electrochemistry

·         04 Chemical Kinetics

·         05 Surface Chemistry

·         06 General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

·         07 The p-Block Elements

·         08 The d- and f- Block Elements

·         09 Coordination Compounds

·         10 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

·         11 Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

·         12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

·         13 Amines

·         14 Biomolecules

·         15 Polymers

·         16 Chemistry in Everyday Life

 


Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution. Despite the complexity of the science, there are certain unifying concepts that consolidate it into a single, coherent field. Biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the creation and extinction of species. Living organisms are open systems that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their local entropy to maintain a stable and vital condition defined as homeostasis.

Chapter includes

·         01 REPRODUCTION IN ORGANISMS

·         02 SEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN FLOWERING PLANTS

·         03 HUMAN REPRODUCTION

·         04 REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH

·         05 PRINCIPLES OF INHERITANCE AND VARIATION

·         06 MOLECULAR BASIS OF INHERITANCE

·         07 EVOLUTION

·         08 HUMAN HEALTH AND DISEASE

·         09 STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCEMENT IN FOOD PRODUCTION

·         10 MICROBES IN HUMAN WELFARE

·         11 BIOTECHNOLOGY : PRINCIPLES AND PROCESSES

·         12 BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS

·         13 ORGANISMS AND POPULATIONS

·         14 ECOSYSTEM

·         15 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION

·         16 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES