Topic outline

  • Food: Where Does It Come From?

    FOOD FROM PLANT SOURCE: Rice, wheat, vegetables, fruits, etc. are obtained from plant source. We get these ingredients from certain parts of different plants. ROOT - We eat root of radish, carrot, turnip, potato, sweet potato, beet, etc. STEM - In certain plants the stem grows underground and store the food.

  • 02 Components of Food

    The main components of foods are carbohydrates,protein, fats, vitamins and minerals. These are called nutrients. *Ads to serve you the highest quality education for free: Carbohydrates- Carbohydratesare also called energy giving food.


  • 03 Fibre to Fabric

    A material which is available in the form of thin and continuous strand is called fibre.

    Types of Fibre

    Natural fibers: The fibers which are obtained from plants and animals are called natural fibers. Examples: cotton, jute, silk, wool.

    Plant Fibre: Cotton and jute are plant fibre.

    Animal fibre: Silk and wool are animal fibre.

    Synthetic fibre: The fibre which are synthesized in industry from simple chemicals obtained from petroleum are called synthetic fibre. Examples: Nylon, Acrylic, Polyester


  • 04 Sorting Materials into Groups

    There is another reason why we find such grouping useful. Dividing materials in groups makes it convenient to study their properties and also observe any patterns in these properties.
  • 05 Separation of Substances

    Handpicking, winnowing, sieving, sedimentation, decantation and filtration are some of the methods of separating substances from their mixtures. ... Filtration can be used to separate components of a mixture of an insoluble solid and a liquid. Evaporation is the process in which a liquid gets converted into its vapour.


  • 06 Changes Around us

    i) If we inflate a tire, the shape and size of the tire changes. This change can be reversed, but if the tire bursts while inflating, then the change is irreversible. ii) Melting of ice is a reversible change whereas cooking of food is an irreversible change.

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  • 07 Getting to Know Plants

    Let us now go on a Nature walk, make friends with many different kinds of plants and examine them closely. Observe their features, study the parts and function. Experience the organs in plants.

  • 08 Body Movements

    The ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, in his book Gait of Animals, asked himself these questions. Why do different animals have the body parts that they do have and how do these body parts help animals to move the way they do? What are the similarities and differences in these body parts between different animals? How many body parts are needed by different animals for moving from place to place.

  • 09 The Living Organisms and Their Surroundings

    The presence of specific features or certain habits, which enable a plant or an animal to live in its surroundings, is called adaptation. Different animals are adapted to their surroundings in different ways. The surroundings where organisms live is called a habitat. The organisms depend for their food, water, air, shelter and other needs on their habitat. Habitat means a dwelling place (a home). Several kinds of plants and animals may share the same habitat. The plants and animals that live on land are said to live in terrestrial habitats. Some examples of terrestrial habitats are forests, grasslands, deserts, coastal and mountain regions.

  • 10 Motion and Measurement of Distances

    The change in position can be determined through distance measurements. This allows us to know how fast or slow a motion is. The movement of a snail on the ground, a butterfly flitting from flower to flower, a river flowing along on clear rounded pebbles, an aeroplane flying high up in the air — making jet trails, moon going around the Earth, blood flowing inside our bodies, there is motion everywhere around us!

  • 11 Light, Shadows and Reflections

    (1) The object should be opaque where light cannot pass through. (2) Source of light and a screen is needed for the formation of shadow. ... Ans: When light rays after striking the smooth and shiny surface return to the same medium, this phenomenon is called reflection of light

  • 12 Electricity and Circuits

    An electric circuit is a path in which electrons from a voltage or current source flow. The point where those electrons enter an electrical circuit is called the "source" of electrons.

  • 13 Fun with Magnets

    We understand that magnet attracts certain materials whereas some do not get attracted towards magnet. The materials which get attracted towards a magnet are magnetic – for example, iron, nickel or cobalt. The materials which are not attracted towards a magnet are non-magnetic.

  • 14 Water

    Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms. Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms that are connected by covalent bonds. Strictly speaking, water refers to the liquid state of a substance that prevails at standard ambient temperature and pressure; but it often refers also to its solid state (ice) or its gaseous state (steam or water vapor). It also occurs in nature as snow, glaciers, ice packs and icebergs, clouds, fog, dew, aquifers, and atmospheric humidity.

  • 15 Air Around us

    Air around us. The air we breathe consists of a mixture of gases and solid and liquid particles. ... Nitrogen and oxygen, equal to 78% and 20.95% by volume, respectively, are the two main components of the atmosphere.
  • 16 Garbage in, Garbage out

    All kind of plastics give out harmful gases, upon heating or burning. These gases may cause many health problems, including cancer, in humans. The government has also laid down guidelines for recycling of plastics.Garbage decomposition plant and save disposal can be effective management activity to be implemented.