Topic outline


    How wonderful it is to watch the sky after sunset! One would first notice one or two bright dots shining in the sky. Soon you would see the number increasing. You cannot count them any more. The whole sky is filled with tiny shining objects – some are bright, others dim. It seems as if the sky is studded with diamonds. They all appear to be twinkling. But if you look at them carefully you will notice that some of them do not twinkle as others do. They simply glow without any flicker just as the moon shines.


    In the previous chapter, you have read that our planet earth is not a sphere. It is slightly flattened at the North and the South Poles and bulge in the middle. Can you imagine how it looks? You may look at a globe carefully in your classroom to get an idea. Globe is a true model (miniature form) of the earth Globes may be of varying size and type – big ones,which cannot be carried easily, small pocket globes,and globe-like balloons, which can be inflated and are handy and carried with ease. The globe is not fixed. It can be rotated the same way as a top spin or a potter’s wheel is rotated. On the globe, countries, continents and oceans are shown in their correct size.


    As you know that the earth has two types of motions, namely rotation and revolution. Rotation is the movement of the earth on its axis. The movement of the earth around the sun in a fixed path or orbit is called Revolution.

  • 04 MAPS

    You have learnt in the previous chapter about the advantages of a globe. However, globe has limitations as well. A globe can be useful when we want to study the earth as a whole. But, when we want to study only a part of the earth, as about our country, states, districts, towns and villages, it is of little help. In such a situation we use maps. A map is a representation or a drawing of the earth’s surface or a part of it drawn on a flat surface according to a scale. But it is impossible to flatten a round shape completely.


    As you have read in the first chapter, the earth is the only planet which has life. Human beings can live here because the life sustaining elements of land, water and air are present on the earth.The surface of the earth is a complex zone in which three main components of the environment meet, overlap and interact. The solid portion of the earth on which we live is called the Lithosphere. The gaseous layers that surround the earth, is the Atmosphere, where oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and other gases are found. Water covers a very big area of the earth’s surface and this area is called the Hydrosphere. The Hydrosphere comprises water in all its forms, that is, ice, water and water vapour. The Biosphere is the narrow zone where we find land, water and air together, which contains all forms of life.


    surface of the earth is not the same everywhere. The earth has an infinite variety of land forms. Some parts of the lithosphere may be rugged and some flat.These land forms are a result of two processes. You will be amazed to know that the ground you are standing on is slowly moving. Within the earth, a continuous movement is taking place. The first, or the internal process leads to the up liftment and sinking of the earth’s surface at several places.


    India is a country of vast geographical expanse. In the north, it is bound by the lofty Himalayas. The Arabian Sea in the west, the Bay of Bengal in the east and the Indian Ocean in the south, wash the shores of the Indian peninsula. India has an area of about 3.28 million sq. km. The north-south extent from Kashmir to Kanyakumari is about 3,200 km. And the east-west extent from Arunachal Pradesh to Kuchchh is about 2,900 km. The lofty mountains, the Great Indian Desert, the Northern Plains, the uneven plateau surface and the coasts and islands present a diversity of landforms. There is a great variety in the climate, vegetation, wildlife as well as in the language and culture. In this diversity, we find unity that is reflected in traditions that bind us as one nation. India has a population of more than one hundred twenty crores since the year 2011. It is the second most populous country of the world after China.


    Broadly, the major seasons recognised in India are:

    • Cold Weather Season (Winter) December to


    • Hot Weather Season (Summer) March to May

    • Southwest Monsoon Season (Rainy)

    June to September

    • Season of Retreating Monsoon (Autumn) October

    and November