- 01 The Solid State
01 The Solid State
It describe general characteristics of solid state;
• distinguish between amorphous and crystalline solids;
• classify crystalline solids on the basis of the nature of binding forces;
• define crystal lattice and unit cell; • explain close packing of particles;
• describe different types of voids and close packed structures;
• calculate the packing efficiency of different types of cubic unit cells;
• correlate the density of a substance with its unit cell properties;
• describe the imperfections in solids and their effect on properties;
• correlate the electrical and magnetic properties of solids and their structure.
- 02 Solutions
It describe the formation of different types of solutions; • express concentration of solution in different units; • state and explain Henry’s law and Raoult’s law; • distinguish between ideal and non-ideal solutions; • explain deviations of real solutions from Raoult’s law; • describe colligative properties of solutions and correlate these with molar masses of the solutes; • explain abnormal colligative properties exhibited by some solutes in solutions.
- 03 Electrochemistry
It describe an electrochemical cell and differentiate between galvanic and electrolytic cells; • apply Nernst equation for calculating the emf of galvanic cell and define standard potential of the cell; • derive relation between standard potential of the cell, Gibbs energy of cell reaction and its equilibrium constant; • define resistivity (ρ), conductivity (κ) and molar conductivity (✆m) of ionic solutions; • differentiate between ionic (electrolytic) and electronic conductivity; • describe the method for measurement of conductivity of electrolytic solutions and calculation of their molar conductivity; • justify the variation of conductivity and molar conductivity of solutions with change in their concentration and define Λ° m (molar conductivity at zero concentration or infinite dilution); • enunciate Kohlrausch law and learn its applications; • understand quantitative aspects of electrolysis; • describe the construction of some primary and secondary batteries and fuel cells; • explain corrosion as an electrochemical process.
- 04 Chemical Kinetics
04 Chemical Kinetics
It define the average and instantaneous rate of a reaction; • express the rate of a reaction in terms of change in concentration of either of the reactants or products with time; • distinguish between elementary and complex reactions; • differentiate between the molecularity and order of a reaction; • define rate constant; • discuss the dependence of rate of reactions on concentration, temperature and catalyst; • derive integrated rate equations for the zero and first order reactions; • determine the rate constants for zeroth and first order reactions; • describe collision theory
- 05 Surface Chemistry
05 Surface Chemistry
It describe interfacial phenomenon and its significance; • define adsorption and classify it into physical and chemical adsorption; • explain mechanism of adsorption; • explain the factors controlling adsorption from gases and solutions on solids; • explain adsorption results on the basis of Freundlich adsorption isotherms; • appreciate the role of catalysts in industry; • enumerate the nature of colloidal state; • describe preparation, properties and purification of colloids; • classify emulsions and describe their preparation and properties; • describe the phenomenon of gel formation; • list the uses of colloids.
- 06 General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
06 General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
It explain the terms minerals, ores, concentration, benefaction, calcination, roasting, refining, etc.; • understand the principles of oxidation and reduction as applied to the extraction procedures; • apply the thermodynamic concepts like that of Gibbs energy and entropy to the principles of extraction of Al, Cu, Zn and Fe; • explain why reduction of certain oxides like Cu2O is much easier than that of Fe2O3; • explain why CO is a favourable reducing agent at certain temperatures while coke is better in some other cases; • explain why specific reducing agents are used for the reduction purposes.
- 07 The p-Block Elements
07 The p-Block Elements
It appreciate general trends in the chemistry of elements of groups 15,16,17 and 18; • learn the preparation, properties and uses of dinitrogen and phosphorus and some of their important compounds; • describe the preparation, properties and uses of dioxygen and ozone and chemistry of some simple oxides; • know allotropic forms of sulphur, chemistry of its important compounds and the structures of its oxoacids; • describe the preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid; • know the chemistry of interhalogens and structures of oxoacids of halogens; • enumerate the uses of noble gases
- 08 The d- and f- Block Elements
08 The d- and f- Block Elements
Helps to learn the positions of the d– and f-block elements in the periodic table; • know the electronic configurations of the transition (d-block) and the inner transition (f-block) elements; • appreciate the relative stability of various oxidation states in terms of electrode potential values; • describe the preparation, properties, structures and uses of some important compounds such as K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4; • understand the general characteristics of the d– and f–block elements and the general horizontal and group trends in them; • describe the properties of the f-block elements and give a comparative account of the lanthanoids and actinoids with respect to their electronic configurations, oxidation states and chemical behaviour.
- 09 Coordination Compounds
09 Coordination Compounds
To appreciate the postulates of Werner’s theory of coordination compounds; • know the meaning of the terms: coordination entity, central atom/ ion, ligand, coordination number, coordination sphere, coordination polyhedron, oxidation number, homoleptic and heteroleptic; • learn the rules of nomenclature of coordination compounds; • write the formulas and names of mononuclear coordination compounds; • define different types of isomerism in coordination compounds; • understand the nature of bonding in coordination compounds in terms of the Valence Bond and Crystal Field theories; • learn the stability of coordination compounds.
- 10 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
10 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
To name haloalkanes and haloarenes according to the IUPAC system of nomenclature from their given structures; • describe the reactions involved in the preparation of haloalkanes and haloarenes and understand various reactions that they undergo; • correlate the structures of haloalkanes and haloarenes with various types of reactions; • use stereochemistry as a tool for understanding the reaction mechanism; • appreciate the applications of organo-metallic compounds; • highlight the environmental effects of polyhalogen compounds.
- 11 Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
11 Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
To name alcohols, phenols and ethers according to the IUPAC system of nomenclature; • discuss the reactions involved in the preparation of alcohols from (i) alkenes (ii) aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids; • discuss the reactions involved in the preparation of phenols from (i) haloarenes (ii) benzene sulphonic acids (iii) diazonium salts and (iv) cumene; • discuss the reactions for preparation of ethers from (i) alcohols and (ii) alkyl halides and sodium alkoxides/aryloxides; • correlate physical properties of alcohols, phenols and ethers with their structures
- 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
To write the common and IUPAC names of aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids; • write the structures of the compounds containing functional groups namely carbonyl and carboxyl groups; • describe the important methods of preparation and reactions of these classes of compounds; • correlate physical properties and chemical reactions of aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids, with their structures; • explain the mechanism of a few selected reactions of aldehydes and ketones; • understand various factors affecting the acidity of carboxylic acids and their reactions; • describe the uses of aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids.
- 13 Amines
To describe amines as derivatives of ammonia having a pyramidal structure; • classify amines as primary, secondary and tertiary; • name amines by common names and IUPAC system; • describe some of the important methods of preparation of amines; • explain the properties of amines; • distinguish between primary, secondary and tertiary amines; • describe the method of preparation of diazonium salts and their importance in the synthesis of a series of aromatic compounds including azo dyes.
- 14 Biomolecules
To define the biomolecules like carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids; • classify carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids and vitamins on the basis of their structures; • explain the difference between DNA and RNA; • appreciate the role of biomolecules in biosystem.
- 15 Polymers
To explain the terms - monomer, polymer and polymerisation and appreciate their importance; • distinguish between various classes of polymers and different types of polymerisation processes; • appreciate the formation of polymers from mono- and bifunctional monomer molecules; • describe the preparation of some important synthetic polymers and their properties; • appreciate the importance of polymers in daily life.
- 16 Chemistry in Everyday Life
16 Chemistry in Everyday Life
To visualise the importance of Chemistry in daily life; • explain the term ‘chemotherapy’; • describe the basis of classification of drugs; • explain drug-target interaction of enzymes and receptors; • explain how various types of drugs function in the body; • know about artificial sweetening agents and food preservatives; • discuss the chemistry of cleansing agents.
- Sample Question Paper and Solutions
Sample Question Paper and Solutions