- 01 SOME BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY
01 SOME BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY
Chemistry, as we understand it today, is not a very old discipline. Chemistry was not studied for its own sake, rather it came up as a result of search for two interesting things: i. Philosopher’s stone (Paras) which would convert all baser metals e.g., iron and copper into gold. ii.‘Elexir of life’ which would grant immortality. People in ancient India, already had the knowledge of many scientific phenomenon much before the advent of modern science. They applied that knowledge in various walks of life.
- 02 STRUCTURE OF ATOM
02 STRUCTURE OF ATOM
To know about the discovery of electron, proton and neutron and their characteristics; • describe Thomson, Rutherford and Bohr atomic models; • understand the important features of the quantum mechanical model of atom; • understand nature of electromagnetic radiation and Planck’s quantum theory; • explain the photoelectric effect and describe features of atomic spectra; • state the de Broglie relation and Heisenberg uncertainty principle; • define an atomic orbital in terms of quantum numbers; • state aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle and Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity; and • write the electronic configurations of atoms.
- 03 CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES
03 CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES
To appreciate how the concept of grouping elements in accordance to their properties led to the development of Periodic Table. • understand the Periodic Law; • understand the significance of atomic number and electronic configuration as the basis for periodic classification; • name the elements with Z >100 according to IUPAC nomenclature; • classify elements into s, p, d, f blocks and learn their main characteristics; • recognise the periodic trends in physical and chemical properties of elements; • compare the reactivity of elements and correlate it with their occurrence in nature; • explain the relationship between ionization enthalpy and metallic character;
- 04 CHEMICAL BONDING AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE
04 CHEMICAL BONDING AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE
To understand KÖssel-Lewis approach to chemical bonding; • explain the octet rule and its limitations, draw Lewis structures of simple molecules; • explain the formation of different types of bonds; • describe the VSEPR theory and predict the geometry of simple molecules; • explain the valence bond approach for the formation of covalent bonds; • predict the directional properties of covalent bonds; • explain the different types of hybridisation involving s, p and d orbitals and draw shapes of simple covalent molecules; • describe the molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules
- 05 STATES OF MATTER.
05 STATES OF MATTER.
explain the existence of different states of matter in terms of balance between intermolecular forces and thermal energy of particles; • explain the laws governing behaviour of ideal gases; • apply gas laws in various real life situations; • explain the behaviour of real gases; • describe the conditions required for liquifaction of gases; • realise that there is continuity in gaseous and liquid state; • differentiate between gaseous state and vapours; and • explain properties of liquids in terms of intermolecular attractions.
- 06 THERMODYNAMICS
explain the terms : system and surroundings; • discriminate between close, open and isolated systems; • explain internal energy, work and heat; • state first law of thermodynamics and express it mathematically; • calculate energy changes as work and heat contributions in chemical systems; • explain state functions: U, H. • correlate ∆U and ∆H; • measure experimentally ∆U and ∆H; • define standard states for ∆H; • calculate enthalpy changes for various types of reactions; • state and apply Hess’s law of constant heat summation
- 07 EQUILIBRIUM
Identify dynamic nature of equilibrium involved in physical and chemical processes; • state the law of equilibrium; • explain characteristics of equilibria involved in physical and chemical processes; • write expressions for equilibrium constants; • establish a relationship between Kp and Kc ; • explain various factors that affect the equilibrium state of a reaction; • classify substances as acids or bases according to Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis concepts; • classify acids and bases as weak or strong in terms of their ionization constants; • explain the dependence of degree of ionization on concentration of the electrolyte and that of the common ion; • describe pH scale for representing hydrogen ion concentration; • explain ionisation of water and its duel role as acid and base; • describe ionic product (Kw ) and pKw for water
- 08 REDOX REACTIONS
08 REDOX REACTIONS
identify redox reactions as a class of reactions in which oxidation and reduction reactions occur simultaneously; • define the terms oxidation, reduction, oxidant (oxidising agent) and reductant (reducing agent); • explain mechanism of redox reactions by electron transfer process; • use the concept of oxidation number to identify oxidant and reductant in a reaction; • classify redox reaction into combination (synthesis), decomposition, displacement and disproportionation reactions; • suggest a comparative order among various reductants and oxidants; • balance chemical equations using (i) oxidation number (ii) half reaction method
- 09 HYDROGEN
Present informed opinions on the position of hydrogen in the periodic table; • identify the modes of occurrence and preparation of dihydrogen on a small and commercial scale; describe isotopes of hydrogen; • explain how different elements combine with hydrogen to form ionic, molecular and nonstoichiometric compounds; • describe how an understanding of its properties can lead to the production of useful substances, and new technologies; • understand the structure of water and use the knowledge for explaining physical and chemical properties; • explain how environmental water quality depends on a variety of dissolved substances; difference between 'hard' and 'soft' water and learn about water softening; • acquire the knowledge about heavy water and its importance; • understand the structure of hydrogen peroxide, learn its preparatory methods and properties leading to the manufacture of useful chemicals and cleaning of environment
- 10 THE s-BLOCK ELEMENTS
10 THE s-BLOCK ELEMENTS
Describe the general characteristics of the alkali metals and their compounds; • explain the general characteristics of the alkaline earth metals and their compounds; • describe the manufacture, properties and uses of industrially important sodium and calcium compounds including Portland cement; • appreciate the biological significance of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium.
- 11 THE s-BLOCK ELEMENTS
11 THE s-BLOCK ELEMENTS
appreciate the general trends in the chemistry of p-block elements; • describe the trends in physical and chemical properties of group 13 and 14 elements; • explain anomalous behaviour of boron and carbon; • describe allotropic forms of carbon; • know the chemistry of some important compounds of boron, carbon and silicon; • list the important uses of group 13 and 14 elements and their compounds.
- 12 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY – SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES
12 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY – SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES
understand reasons for tetravalence of carbon and shapes of organic molecules; • write structures of organic molecules in various ways; • classify the organic compounds; • name the compounds according to IUPAC system of nomenclature and also derive their structures from the given names; • understand the concept of organic reaction mechanism; • explain the influence of electronic displacements on structure and reactivity of organic compounds; • recognise the types of organic reactions; • learn the techniques of purification of organic compounds; • write the chemical reactions involved in the qualitative analysis of organic compounds
- 13 HYDROCARBONS
name hydrocarbons according to IUPAC system of nomenclature; • recognise and write structures of isomers of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and aromatic hydrocarbons; • learn about various methods of preparation of hydrocarbons; • distinguish between alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and aromatic hydrocarbons on the basis of physical and chemical properties; • draw and differentiate between various conformations of ethane; • appreciate the role of hydrocarbons as sources of energy and for other industrial applications; • predict the formation of the addition products of unsymmetrical alkenes and alkynes on the basis of electronic mechanism; • comprehend the structure of benzene, explain aromaticity and understand mechanism of electrophilic substitution reactions of benzene; • predict the directive influence of substituents in monosubstituted benzene ring
- 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY
14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY
understand the meaning of environmental chemistry; • define atmospheric pollution, list reasons for global warming. green house effect and acid rain; • identify causes for ozone layer depletion and its effects; • give reasons for water pollution and know about international standards for drinking water; • describe causes of soil pollution; • suggest and adopt strategies for control of environmental pollution; • appreciate the importance of green chemistry in day to day life.