## Topic outline

• • ### 01 PHYSICAL WORLD

Physics is a basic discipline in the category of Natural Sciences, which also includes other disciplines like Chemistry and Biology. The word Physics comes from a Greek word meaning nature. Its Sanskrit equivalent is Bhautiki that is used to refer to the study of the physical world. A precise definition of this discipline is neither possible nor necessary. We can broadly describe physics as a study of the basic laws of nature and their manifestation in different natural phenomena. The scope of physics is described briefly in the next section. Here we remark on two principal thrusts in physics : unification and reduction. In Physics, we attempt to explain diverse physical phenomena in terms of a few concepts and laws.

• ### 02 UNITS AND MEASUREMENT

The result of a measurement of a physical quantity is expressed by a number (or numerical measure) accompanied by a unit. Although the number of physical quantities appears to be very large, we need only a limited number of units for expressing all the physical quantities, since they are interrelated with one another. The units for the fundamental or base quantities are called fundamental or base units. The units of all other physical quantities can be expressed as combinations of the base units. Such units obtained for the derived quantities are called derived units. A complete set of these units, both the base units and derived units, is known as the system of units.

• ### 03 MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE

Motion is change in position of an object with time. How does the position change with time ? In this chapter, we shall learn how to describe motion. For this, we develop the concepts of velocity and acceleration. We shall confine ourselves to the study of motion of objects along a straight line, also known as rectilinear motion. For the case of rectilinear motion with uniform acceleration, a set of simple equations can be obtained. Finally, to understand the relative nature of motion, we introduce the concept of relative velocity.

• ### 04 MOTION IN A PLANE

Scalar quantities are quantities with magnitudes only. Examples are distance, speed, mass and temperature. 2. Vector quantities are quantities with magnitude and direction both. Examples are displacement, velocity and acceleration. They obey special rules of vector algebra. 3. A vector A multiplied by a real number λ is also a vector, whose magnitude is λ times the magnitude of the vector A and whose direction is the same or opposite depending upon whether λ is positive or negative. 4. Two vectors A and B may be added graphically using head-to-tail method or parallelogram method. 5. Vector addition is commutative : A + B = B + A It also obeys the associative law : (A + B) + C = A + (B + C) 6. A null or zero vector is a vector with zero magnitude.

• ### 05 LAWS OF MOTION

Aristotle’s view that a force is necessary to keep a body in uniform motion is wrong. A force is necessary in practice to counter the opposing force of friction. 2. Galileo extrapolated simple observations on motion of bodies on inclined planes, and arrived at the law of inertia. Newton’s first law of motion is the same law rephrased thus: “Everybody continues to be in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line, unless compelled by some external force to act otherwise”. In simple terms, the First Law is “If external force on a body is zero, its acceleration is zero”. 3. Momentum (p ) of a body is the product of its mass (m) and velocity (v) : p = m v

4. Newton’s second law of motion : The rate of change of momentum of a body is proportional to the applied force and takes place in the direction in which the force acts.

• ### 06 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER

The work-energy theorem states that the change in kinetic energy of a body is the work done by the net force on the body. Kf - Ki = Wnet 2. A force is conservative if (i) work done by it on an object is path independent and depends only on the end points {xi , xj }, or (ii) the work done by the force is zero for an arbitrary closed path taken by the object such that it returns to its initial position.

4. The principle of conservation of mechanical energy states that the total mechanical energy of a body remains constant if the only forces that act on the body are conservative. 5. The gravitational potential energy of a particle of mass m at a height x about the earth’s surface is V(x) = m g x

• ### 07 SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES AND ROTATIONAL MOTION

Ideally, a rigid body is one for which the distances between different particles of the body do not change, even though there are forces on them. 2. A rigid body fixed at one point or along a line can have only rotational motion. A rigid body not fixed in some way can have either pure translation or a combination of translation and rotation. 3. In rotation about a fixed axis, every particle of the rigid body moves in a circle which lies in a plane perpendicular to the axis and has its centre on the axis. Every Point in the rotating rigid body has the same angular velocity at any instant of time. 4. In pure translation, every particle of the body moves with the same velocity at any instant of time. 5. Angular velocity is a vector. Its magnitude is ω = dθ/dt and it is directed along the axis of rotation. For rotation about a fixed axis, this vector ω has a fixed direction.

• ### 08 GRAVITATION

Newton’s law of universal gravitation states that the gravitational force of attraction between any two particles of masses m1 and m2 separated by a distance r has the magnitude F =G m m /r 2

where G is the universal gravitational constant, which has the value 6.672 ×10–11 Nm2 kg–2. 2. If we have to find the resultant gravitational force acting on the particle m due to a number of masses M1, M2, ….Mn etc. we use the principle of superposition. Let F1, F2, ….Fn be the individual forces due to M1, M2, ….Mn, each given by the law of gravitation. From the principle of superposition each force acts independently and uninfluenced by the other bodies. The resultant force FR is then found by vector addition FR = F1 + F2 + ……+ Fn = Fi i n = ∑ 1 where the symbol ‘Σ’ stands for summation.

3. Kepler’s laws of planetary motion state that (a) All planets move in elliptical orbits with the Sun at one of the focal points (b) The radius vector drawn from the sun to a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal time intervals. This follows from the fact that the force of gravitation on the planet is central and hence angular momentum is conserved. (c) The square of the orbital period of a planet is proportional to the cube of the semimajor axis of the elliptical orbit of the planet

Most planets have nearly circular orbits about the Sun. For elliptical orbits, the above equation is valid if R is replaced by the semi-major axis, a.

4. The acceleration due to gravity are very well discussed.

• ### 09 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS

A solid has definite shape and size. In order to change (or deform) the shape or size of a body, a force is required. If you stretch a helical spring by gently pulling its ends, the length of the spring increases slightly. When you leave the ends of the spring, it regains its original size and shape. The property of a body, by virtue of which it tends to regain its original size and shape when the applied force is removed, is known as elasticity and the deformation caused is known as elastic deformation. However, if you apply force to a lump of putty or mud, they have no gross tendency to regain their previous shape, and they get permanently deformed. Such substances are called plastic and this property is called plasticity.

• ### 10 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS

Fluids are everywhere around us. Earth has an envelop of air and two-thirds of its surface is covered with water. Water is not only necessary for our existence; every mammalian body constitute mostly of water. All the processes occurring in living beings including plants are mediated by fluids. Thus understanding the behaviour and properties of fluids is important

• ### 11 THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER

Heat is a form of energy that flows between a body and its surrounding medium by virtue of temperature difference between them. The degree of hotness of the body is quantitatively represented by temperature. 2. A temperature-measuring device (thermometer) makes use of some measurable property (called thermometric property) that changes with temperature. Different thermometers lead to different temperature scales. To construct a temperature scale, two fixed points are chosen and assigned some arbitrary values of temperature. The two numbers fix the origin of the scale and the size of its unit. 3. The Celsius temperature (t C) and the Farenheit temperare (t F)are related by tF = (9/5) tC + 32 4. The ideal gas equation connecting pressure (P), volume (V) and absolute temperature (T) is : PV = μRT where μ is the number of moles and R is the universal gas constant.

• ### 12 THERMODYNAMICS

Equilibrium in mechanics means that the net external force and torque on a system are zero. The term ‘equilibrium’ in thermodynamics appears * Thermodynamics may also involve other variables that are not so obvious to our senses e.g. entropy, enthalpy, etc., and they are all macroscopic variables. ** Both the variables need not change. It depends on the constraints. For instance, if the gases are in containers of fixed volume, only the pressures of the gases would change to achieve thermal equilibrium. in a different context : we say the state of a system is an equilibrium state if the macroscopic variables that characterise the system do not change in time. For example, a gas inside a closed rigid container, completely insulated from its surroundings, with fixed values of pressure, volume, temperature, mass and composition that do not change with time, is in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium.

• ### 13 KINETIC THEORY

The ideal gas equation connecting pressure (P), volume (V) and absolute temperature (T ) is PV = μ RT = kB NT

where μ is the number of moles and N is the number of molecules. R and kB are universal constants. R = 8.314 J mol–1 K–1, kB = A R N = 1.38 × 10–23 J K–1

Real gases satisfy the ideal gas equation only approximately, more so at low pressures and high temperatures.

2. Kinetic theory of an ideal gas gives the relation  P =n m v where n is number density of molecules, m the mass of the molecule and 2 v is the mean of squared speed. Combined with the ideal gas equation it yields a kinetic interpretation of temperature.

• ### 14 OSCILLATIONS

The study of oscillatory motion is basic to physics; its concepts are required for the understanding of many physical phenomena. In musical instruments like the sitar, the guitar or the violin, we come across vibrating strings that produce pleasing sounds. The membranes in drums and diaphragms in telephone and speaker systems vibrate to and fro about their mean positions. The vibrations of air molecules make the propagation of sound possible. Similarly, the atoms in a solid oscillate about their mean positions and convey the sensation of temperature. The oscillations of electrons in the antennas of radio, TV and satellite transmitters convey information. The description of a periodic motion in general, and oscillatory motion in particular, requires some fundamental concepts like period, frequency, displacement, amplitude and phase. These concepts are developed in the next section.

• ### Waves

The disturbances produced in air are much less obvious and only our ears or a microphone can detect them. These patterns, which move without the actual physical transfer or flow of matter as a whole, are called waves. In this Chapter, we will study such waves. In a wave, information and energy, in the form of signals, propagate from one point to another but no material object makes the journey. All our communications depend on the transmission of signals through waves. When we make a telephone call to a friend at a distant place, a sound wave carries the message from our vocal cords to the telephone

• Video Lesson to Waves